Citation: Elven, R., F. Ødegaard, E. Oug, and H. Sandvik (2013) Alien species: introduction, establishment and spread. Pages 17–56 in Alien species in Norway – with the Norwegian Black List 2012 (edited by L. Gederaas, T. L. Moen, S. Skjelseth, and L.-K. Larsen), Norwegian Biodiversity Information Centre, Trondheim, Norway [English parallel edition of a report that was originally published in Norwegian].
Summary: The chapter provides a general survey of invasion biology. It discusses the criteria used and problems attached to delimit alien from native species. It explains where alien species come from and how they enter Norway. It gives an introduction to the factors affecting the establishment and spread of alien species and to the effects these can have on the native biota. Finally, the effect og global warming on these processes is considered.
Full text: © 2012 Norwegian Biodiversity Information Centre. You may order or download the entire report here.