Citation: Sandvik, H., O. Hilmo,
S. Henriksen, R. Elven, P. A. Åsen, H. Hegre, O. Pedersen, P. A. Pedersen,
H. Solstad, V. Vandvik, K. B. Westergaard,
F. Ødegaard, S. Åström, H. Elven,
A. Endrestøl, Ø. Gammelmo,
B. A. Hatteland, H. Solheim, B. Nordén,
L. Sundheim, V. Talgø, T. Falkenhaug,
B. Gulliksen, A. Jelmert, E. Oug, J. Sundet,
E. Forsgren, A. Finstad, T. Hesthagen, K. Nedreaas,
R. Wienerroither, V. Husa, S. Fredriksen,
K. Sjøtun, H. Steen, H. Hansen,
I. S. Hamnes, E. Karlsbakk, C. Magnusson,
B. Ytrehus, H. C. Pedersen, J. E. Swenson,
P. O. Syvertsen, B. G. Stokke,
J. O. Gjershaug, D. Dolmen, G. Kjærstad,
S. I. Johnsen, T. C. Jensen, K. Hassel, and
L. Gederaas (2020) Alien species in Norway:
results from quantitative ecological impact assessments.
Ecological Solutions and Evidence, 1, e12006, 12 pp.
Key words: Door-knocker species, ecological effect,
ecological impact, evidence-based management, genetic contamination,
invasion potential, invasive species, quantitative impact assessment.
1. Due to globalisation, trade and transport, the spread of alien species
is increasing dramatically. Some alien species become ecologically harmful by
threatening native biota. This can lead to irreversible changes in local
biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and, ultimately, to biotic
2. We risk-assessed all alien plants, animals, fungi and algae,
within certain delimitations, that are known to reproduce in Norway.
Mainland Norway and the Arctic archipelago of Svalbard plus Jan Mayen
were treated as separate assessment areas. Assessments followed the
Generic Ecological Impact Assessment of Alien Species (GEIAA) protocol,
which uses a fully quantitative set of criteria.
3. A total of 1519 species were risk-assessed, of which 1183
were species reproducing in mainland Norway. Among these, 9% were assessed
to have a severe impact, 7% high impact, 7% potentially high impact, and 49%
low impact, whereas 29% had no known impact. In Svalbard, 16 alien species were
reproducing, one of which with a severe impact.
4. The impact assessments also covered 319 so-called door-knockers,
i.e. species that are likely to establish in Norway within 50 years, and 12
regionally alien species. Of the door-knockers, 8% and 10% were assessed to
have a severe and high impact, respectively.
5. The impact category of most species was driven by negative interactions
with native species, transformation of threatened ecosystems, or genetic
contamination. The proportion of alien species with high or severe impact varied
significantly across the different pathways of introduction, taxonomic groups,
time of introduction, and the environments colonised, but not across continents
6. Given the large number of alien species reproducing in Norway
and the preponderance of species with low impact, it is neither realistic
nor necessary to eradicate all of them. Our results can guide
management authorities in two ways. First, the use of quantitative assessment
criteria facilitates the prioritisation of management resources across species.
Second, the background information collected for each species, such as
introduction pathways, area of occupancy and ecosystems affected, helps designing
appropriate management measures.
Full text: © 2020 The Authors. If you accept
(i) the conditions specified in the
"Attribution" 4.0 licence, and (ii) that printouts have to be made
on recycled paper, you may download
the article here
(pdf, 2.1 MB).
Supplementary material: The article has five Appendices,
- Appendix A
(the Generic Ecological Impact Assessment of Alien Species; pdf, 0.3 MB)
- Appendix B
(detailed statistics; pdf, 0.3 MB)
- Appendix C
(ecological impact assessments of door-knockers to Norway; pdf, 0.2 MB)
- Appendix D
(comparison with IUCN's "100 of the worst"; pdf, 0.1 MB)
- Appendix E
(species names and credits for Figure 2; pdf, 0.5 MB)
The data used in the analyses are available from the Dryad Digital Repository at
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